Our investigational new drug compound, ADAIR, targets stimulant misuse and abuse

Young African scientist with glasses and blue gloves at computer in a lab.png

Stimulant Misuse and Abuse

Over 5 million adolescents and adults misuse prescription stimulant medications on an annual basis, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Even more worrisome, multiple studies of college students and people entering addiction treatment centers report that 40% or more of people who misuse prescription stimulants do so by snorting or injecting these products.


The medical risks associated with misusing and abusing stimulants are substantial, particularly when snorted or injected which allows for rapid entry of the drug into the bloodstream.  These risks include irregular heartbeat, heart attack, seizures, hallucinations, hostile behavior, and stroke.  The number of emergency room visits due to non-medical use of prescription stimulants more than quadrupled from 2004 to 2011.


The risks of stimulants are not limited to those who are prescribed the medications. Published studies report that nearly 25% of teenagers with ADHD report being approached to give away or sell their stimulant medication.  More than 60% of college students with ADHD admit that they have diverted (sold or given away) their prescription stimulant medication.


Video courtesy of Abuse Deterrent Coalition

Abuse-Deterrent, Amphetamine Immediate-Release (ADAIR)


Vallon is developing a proprietary Abuse-Deterrent Amphetamine Immediate-Release (ADAIR) for the potential treatment of ADHD and Narcolepsy. ADAIR is an oral formulation of immediate-release (short-acting) dextroamphetamine that is specifically designed to limit abuse by snorting or injecting. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reports that nearly two million people misuse or abuse prescription stimulants annually with studies reporting that 40 percent or more do so by snorting or injecting these products. The ADAIR formulation was developed in close collaboration with Capsugel®, an international formulation and commercial drug manufacturing expert. Vallon has filed patents protecting the ADAIR product drawing on discoveries made during the development process.


In 2016, over 25 million prescriptions were filled in the U.S. for immediate release (IR) stimulants, such as Adderall® and Dexedrine®, which represent the fastest growing class of prescribed ADHD drugs in both the pediatric and adult segments. While effective in the treatment of ADHD, CNS stimulants have been shown in multiple studies to have high potential for abuse and addiction and are scheduled as Class II controlled substances by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and other similar agencies outside the U.S.

Scientific Publications

“ADAIR: An Abuse Deterrent Oral Formulation of Immediate Release Dextro-Amphetamine Sulfate (d-amphetamine)"

American Professional Society of ADHD and Related Disorders Annual Meeting, 2018

J. Rubin, D. Baker, D. Siner

“Understanding Abuse Risk Related to Immediate-Release Amphetamine”

American Professional Society of ADHD and Related Disorders Annual Meeting, 2018

J. Rubin, D. Baker, D. Siner, N. Oyedele

Scientific Publications discuss only investigational uses of ADAIR.

All trademarks shown are the property of their respective owners.